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让农村改厕更标准更规范——专家就《农村三格式户厕建设技术规范》等3项国家标准编制情况答记者问

  时间: 2019-07-27        大    中    小      来源:yabet下载-官方认证

yabet下载  JINNIAN4YUEDI,SHICHANGJIANGUANZONGJU(BIAOZHUNWEI)PIZHUNFABU《NONGCUNSANGESHIHUCEJIANSHEJISHUGUIFAN》《NONGCUNSANGESHIHUCEYUNXINGWEIHUGUIFAN》《NONGCUNJIZHONGXIASHUIDAOSHOUJIHUCEJIANSHEJISHUGUIFAN》3XIANGTUIJIANXINGGUOJIABIAOZHUN。3XIANGBIAOZHUNYOUNONGYENONGCUNBUHUANJINGBAOHUKEYANJIANCESUO、NONGYENONGCUNBUGUIHUASHEJIYANJIUYUANFENBIEQIANTOUQICAO。

  JINRI,NONGYENONGCUNBUHUANJINGBAOHUKEYANJIANCESUOXIANGCUNHUANJINGJIANSHECHUANGXINTUANDUISHOUXIZHENGXIANGQUNYANJIUYUAN、NONGYENONGCUNBUGUIHUASHEJIYANJIUYUANNONGCUNNENGYUANYUHUANBAOYANJIUSUOSUOZHANGSHENYUJUNGAOJIGONGCHENGSHI、ZHONGGUOJIBINGYUFANGKONGZHIZHONGXINNONGCUNGAISHUIJISHUZHIDAOZHONGXINFUZHURENZHANGRONGYANJIUYUANWEIRAO3XIANGBIAOZHUNBIANZHIQINGKUANGJINXINGJIEDU,HUIDAJIZHETIWEN。

  问: 请介绍一下农村改厕3项国家标准的编制背景。 

yabet下载  ZHENGXIANGQUN: CESUOSUIXIAO,QUESHIZHONGDAMINSHENGGONGCHENG。2018NIANYILAI,NONGYENONGCUNBU、GUOJIAWEISHENGJIANKANGWEIHUITONGYOUGUANBUMENJIJIXINGDONG,YOULITUIJINSHISHI,QUDEJIJICHENGXIAO,NONGCUNWEISHENGCESUOPUJILVCHAOGUO60%。ZHEILIANGNIAN,yabetXIAZAIDAOJICENGDIAOYANYIJIGUONIANGUOJIEHUIJIA,YEQIESHENGANSHOUDAOLENONGCUNGAICEJILAOBAIXINGSHENGHUODAILAIDEXINBIANHUA。YUCITONGSHI,DAJIAYERENSHIDAODANGQIANNONGCUNGAICERENGRANCUNZAIYIXIEWENTI,TEBIESHIZAI2019NIANGUOWUYUANNONGCUNRENJUHUANJINGZHENGZHIDAJIANCHAFAXIAN,YIXIEDIFANGJISHUMOSHIXUANZEBUKEXUE、CHANPINHESHIGONGZHILIANGBUGAO、YUNXINGWEIHUJIZHIBUWANSHANDENG。CICI3XIANGGUOJIABIAOZHUNDEFABUSHISHI,WANSHANLENONGCUNHUCEBIAOZHUNTIXI,YOUZHUYUSHANGSHUWENTIDEJIEJUE。

  WEIZUOHAOBIAOZHUNBIANZHIGONGZUO,BIANZHIZUTIQIANCHOUHUA,JIANCHIBIANYANJIUBIANDIAOYANBIANQICAO,GUANGFANZHENGQIULEYENEIZHUANJIA、DIFANGBUMEN、GAICEQIYE、XIANGGUANBUWEIYIJISHEHUIGEJIEYIJIANJIANYI,JINXINGLEFANFUYANJIULUNZHENG。ZAISHICHANGJIANGUANZONGJU(BIAOZHUNWEI)DEDALIZHICHIHEJINGXINZHIDAOXIA,YU4YUEDIZHENGSHIFABU。YINGGAISHUO,ZHEISHINONGCUNGAICELINGYUBIAOZHUNHUAJIANSHEQUDEDEBIAOZHIXINGCHENGGUO。

  问: 对农村三格式户厕建设有哪些规定? 

  ZHENGXIANGQUN: NONGCUNSANGESHIHUCESHIMUQIANGEDINONGCUNGAICEGONGZUOZHONGCAIYONGJIAODUODEYIZHONGMOSHI,NONGMINJIESHOUCHENGDUYEBIJIAOGAO,DANKANSIJIANDAN,SHIZEYOUYIDINGJISHUHANLIANG,SHIGEXITONGGONGCHENG,YIGEHUANJIECHULEWENTIDOUYOUKENENGDAOZHINONGMINQUNZHONGBUYUANYONG。WEICI,《NONGCUNSANGESHIHUCEJIANSHEJISHUGUIFAN》JUJIAONONGCUNSANGESHIHUCEJIANSHEDEQUANGUOCHENG,DUISHEJI、SHIGONG、YANSHOUDENGNEIRONGJINXINGLEGUIDING。

  一是yabet下载明确了农村三格式户厕的选址、厕屋、卫生洁具和三格化粪池的设计要求,重点对适合农村地区使用的三格化粪池结构、选型和质量要求进行了规定,如提出了三格化粪池的有效容积选择方法,明确了材料要求、物理性能和密封性能指标,从源头保障农村三格式户厕建设的设计水平和产品质量。

  二是提出了农村三格式户厕安装与施工要求。从材料与设备进场检验、厕屋施工、卫生洁具安装,以及三格化粪池安装与施工环节提出了技术要求,对容易出现质量问题的环节提出了专业施工技术要求,确保施工过程和质量管理的标准化。

  三是yabet下载提出了工程质量验收要求,明确了验收主体和流程,给出了验收要点,为各地制定验收方案提供了参考。

  问: 农村改厕需要与农村生活污水处理有效衔接,标准对此有哪些规定? 

  ZHENGXIANGQUN: 2019NIAN7YUE,ZHONGYANGNONGBAN、NONGYENONGCUNBUDENG7BUWEILIANHEYINFALE《GUANYUQIESHITIGAONONGCUNGAICEGONGZUOZHILIANGDETONGZHI》,TICHUYAOYOUXIANJIEJUEHAOCESUOFENWUSHOUJIHELIYONGQUXIANGWENTI,YUNONGCUNSHENGHUOWUSHUIZHILIYOUJIXIANJIE。CONGGEDIFANYINGLAIKAN,NONGCUNHUCEGAIZAOYUWUSHUICHULIRUHEYOUXIAOXIANJIE,NONGCUNDAIYOUXIASHUIDAODEHUCERUHEJIANSHE,MUQIANHAIQUESHAOKEXUEGUIFAN。RUYOUDEDIFANGCAIYONGCHENGSHIJIZHONGPAISHUIGUANWANGJIANSHEYAOQIU,DAOZHITOUZIGAO;YOUDEDIFANGTAOYONGDANHUGAICEJISHU,DAOZHIGUODUGAIZAO;YOUDEDIFANGFENWUWUHAIHUACHULIXIAOGUOCANCHABUQI,RONGYIZAOCHENGQUYUXINGMIANYUANWURANHEKELIYONGFEILIAOZIYUANLIUSHI。

  BENCIFABUDE《NONGCUNJIZHONGXIASHUIDAOSHOUJIHUCEJIANSHEJISHUGUIFAN》JIUSHIJIYUXIANJIENONGCUNGAICEHEWUSHUIZHILIWENTIERBIANZHIDE。ZONGTILAISHUO,CESUOWUSHUIYUNONGCUNSHENGHUOZAPAISHUIYIFENKAISHOUJI。ZAIYIJIANHENIJIANSHENGHUOWUSHUISHOUJIGUANWANGHEJIZHONGCHULISHESHIDEDIQU,NONGCUNGAICEYINGHESHOUJIGUANWANGXIANJIE,CESUOWUSHUIYINGJINLIANGJINRUSHOUJIGUANWANG,HESHENGHUOWUSHUIYIBINGCHULI,BUNENG“LIANGZHANGPI”,BIMIANZHONGFUJIANSHE。JUTIZUOFASHI: NONGHUGAICESHI,KEYIXIUJIANLIANGGEHUOYIGEHUAFENCHI,RANHOUJIERUSHOUJIGUANWANG;YIWANCHENGSHUICHONGSHIWEISHENGCESUOGAIZAODENONGHU,KEZHIJIEBASANGEHUAFENCHIDENGJIERUSHOUJIGUANWANG;RUHUGUANDAOPODUJIAODADENONGHU,KEBUYONGJIANSHEHUAFENCHIDENGYUCHULISHEBEI,ZHIJIEBABIANQIPAICHUDECESUOWUSHUIJIERUGUANWANG。TONGSHI,WEIBIMIANCESUOWUSHUIJINRUSHOUJIGUANWANGDAOZHIDEGUANDAODUSAI、HOUQICHULIFUDANGUOZHONGDENGWENTI,BENBIAOZHUNCONGJISHUHECAOZUODEJIAODUWEIGEZHONGJIERUFANGSHITICHULEBIMIANCUOSHIHESHOUDUAN。

  问: 标准中使用了化粪池有效容积的概念,有什么考虑? 

yabet下载  ZHANGRONG: SHIJISHANG,YOUXIAORONGJIBINGBUSHIXINGAINIAN。yabetXIAZAICHAYUELEXIANGGUANZILIAO,ZAOZAIBENSHIJICHU,《NONGCUNHUANJINGWEISHENGGONGZUOZHINAN》HE《ZHONGGUONONGCUNWEISHENGCESUOJISHUZHINAN》ZHONG,ZAICHANSHUSANGEHUAFENCHICESUOSHEJIYUANLIHEXIANGGUANCANSHUSHIJIUSHIYONGLEYOUXIAORONGJIDEBIAOSHU。YINWEIDUIYUSANGESHIHUAFENCHILAISHUO,ZHIYOUGUOFENGUANXIAYANDEBUFENCAISHIFENWUDESHIJIZHUCUNKONGJIAN,GUOFENGUANYISHANGDEBUFENSHIKONGQIANG,BUCHUCUNFENWU。DUICI,《NONGCUNHUCEWEISHENGGUIFAN》TICHUSANGEHUAFENCHIRONGJI≥1.5m3,SUOZHIDEYESHIYOUXIAOCHUCUNKONGJIAN。《SULIAOHUAFENCHI》JIUMINGQUESHIYONGLEYOUXIAORONGJI。2019NIAN,GUOJIAWEISHENGJIANKANGWEIBANGONGTING、NONGYENONGCUNBUBANGONGTINGYINFADE《NONGCUNHUCEJIANSHEJISHUYAOQIU(SHIXING)》ZHONG,ZAISANGESHIHUCEJIEGOUZHONGDUIYOUXIAORONGJIJINXINGLEZAICIQIANGDIAO。

yabet下载  CONGMUQIANLEJIEDEQINGKUANGLAIKAN,YOUDEDIFANGDUICILIJIEBUYIZHI。RUGUOYIHUAFENCHIZONGRONGJITIDAIYOUXIAORONGJI,JIANGDAOZHIFENWUWUHAIHUACHULIKONGJIANGUOXIAO,WUFAZAIGUIDINGDETINGLIUSHIJIANNEIDADAOFENWUWUHAIHUACHULIXIAOGUO。YINCI,CICIFABUDEBIAOZHUNMINGQUESHIYONGLEYOUXIAORONGJIBIAOSHU,YOUZHUYUQUEBAOFENWUDADAOWUHAIHUACHULIXIAOGUO。TONGSHI,BIAOZHUNHAIJIEHEJIATINGRENKOUSHULIANG,JICHULEHUAFENCHIYOUXIAORONGJIDECANKAOZHI: DUIYU3RENYIXIADE,YOUXIAORONGJICANKAOZHI≥1.5m3;4-6RENDE,YOUXIAORONGJICANKAOZHI≥2m3;7-9RENDE,YOUXIAORONGJICANKAOZHI≥2.5m3,BIANYUGEDIXUANZE。

  问: 为什么《农村三格式户厕建设技术规范》和《农村集中下水道收集户厕建设技术规范》标准中化粪池结构不一样? 

yabet下载  ZHANGRONG: 《NONGCUNSANGESHIHUCEJIANSHEJISHUGUIFAN》ZHONGDEHUAFENCHISHISANGEHUAFENCHI,《NONGCUNJIZHONGXIASHUIDAOSHOUJIHUCEJIANSHEJISHUGUIFAN》ZHONGDEHUAFENCHISHILIANGGEHUOYIGEHUAFENCHI,SHENZHIKEYIBUYONGHUAFENCHI。ZHEISHIGENJUFENWUQUXIANGBUTONGERTICHUDEBUTONGJISHUCUOSHI。

  DUINONGCUNSANGESHIHUCEJIANSHEERYAN,HOUDUANXUYAOPEISHANGFENWUQINGTAOJIZHIHUOJIUDIJIUJINZIYUANHUALIYONGTIAOJIAN,HUANJUHUASHUO,SANGEHUAFENCHIJIANGWEIHOUQIQINGTAOZUOZHUNBEI,CHULECHULIFENWU、DADAOWUHAIHUAYAOQIUWAI,HAIJUYOUFENWUCHUCUNGONGNENG。

  DUINONGCUNJIZHONGXIASHUIDAOSHOUJIHUCEJIANSHEERYAN,HOUDUANZHIJIELIANRUWUSHUICHULIGUANWANG,MEIYOUBIYAOJINXINGJIUDIWUHAIHUACHULIHEZHANGQICUNCHU,YINCIHUAFENCHIZHIXULIANGGEHUOYIGE,RANGCESUOWUSHUITINGLIU24XIAOSHI,CHUBUCHENDIANYEHUAHOUKEYIJINRUSHOUJIGUANWANG,JIANGFENWUWUHAIHUAJIFAJIAOGONGNENGJIAOJIHOUQIDEJIZHONGCHULISHESHILAIWANCHENG,ZHEIYANGJITIGAOLEWUSHUIJIZHONGCHULISHESHILIYONGXIAOLV,YOUJIANSHAOLECESUOJIANSHETOURU。

  问: 在农村厕所日常管护上,标准提出了哪些要求? 

  SHENYUJUN: CESUOJIANDEHAO,GENGYAOGUANDEHAO。《NONGCUNSANGESHIHUCEYUNXINGWEIHUGUIFAN》ZHONGDIANJIUNONGCUNSANGESHIHUCEDERICHANGSHIYONG、FENWUGUANLI、WEIHU、YINGJICHUZHIYIJIGUANHUDENGNEIRONGJINXINGLEGUIDING。ZHUYAOJIZHONGZAIYIXIAJIGEFANGMIAN。

  一是明确了农村三格式户厕的厕屋、便器、清洗设施和化粪池等部件的日常使用和维护维修要求,并对检查时间和频次进行了量化。如厕屋内外宜每日清扫;化粪池第三池粪污应每月检查一次;化粪池第一、二池的粪皮、粪渣应每半年检查一次;应每年至少检查一次化粪池、检测一次粪污无害化处理效果。

  二是归纳了一套粪污管理全过程的要求,覆盖化粪池清掏、粪污运输、粪污处理处置等环节,做到全过程有标可依。如第一、二、三池粪污不应互混清掏,不应取用第一、二池的粪污施肥。

  三是yabet下载提出了农村三格式厕所管护服务的引导性要求,包括鼓励管护市场化、服务社会化、粪污清理处理专业化和装备机械化;鼓励建立智能管护系统,如车载定位、视频监控、以及粪污液位传感器、粪污无害化处理效果等监测系统。

  问: 如果化粪池漏了或者粪污溢出来了应该如何处理,对此标准提出了哪些措施? 

  SHENYUJUN: JIANSHESANGESHIHUCEDEZHUYAOMUDESHITONGGUOSANGESHIHUAFENCHI,JIANSHAO、QUCHUHUOSHAMIEFENWUZHONGDEBINGYUANTI,KONGZHIWENYINGZISHENG、FANGZHIECHOUKUOSANQUCHUHESHAMIEJISHENGCHONGLUANDENGBINGYUANTI。RUGUOYIDANHUAFENCHIFASHENGSHENLOUHUOFENWUWAIYIJIANGDABUDAOWUHAIHUACHULIXIAOGUO,DUIHUANJINGZAOCHENGWURAN。YINCI,《NONGCUNSANGESHIHUCEYUNXINGWEIHUGUIFAN》MINGQUETICHU,RUHUAFENCHICHUXIANSHENLOUHUOFENWUWAIYIWENTISHI,YINGLIJITINGZHISHIYONG,JISHIQINGTAOFENWU、WEIXIUHUOGENGHUANHUAFENCHI,TONGSHIXIANGQINGTAOHUOWAIYIDEFENWUZHONGJIARUSHENGSHIHUIHUOXIAODUJIDENGJINXINGXIAODUJIWUHAIHUACHULI。

  CIWAI,DUIYUFENKOUCHUANBOJIBINGFASHENGDEGAOFENGXIANDIQU,BIAOZHUNTICHUCEWUNEIYINGJIADATONGFENGHUANQI,JIAQIANGXIAODU;HUAFENCHIZHOUBIANHUANJINGYINGZAIZHUANYERENYUANZHIDAOXIAJINXINGXIAODU;QINGTAOZUOYERENYUANYINGJIAQIANGGERENFANGHU,JISHIXISHOUXIAODU;QINGTAOJIZHUANYUNGUOCHENG,YINGBAOZHENGFENWUBUBAOLU,YANGEMIBIFENWUSHOUYUNSHESHI;YINGDUIQINGTAOHOUKENENGWURANDECHANGSUO、SHESHISHEBEIJINXINGXIAODU,YINGFUHE《XIAODUJISHUGUIFAN》DEXIANGGUANYAOQIU。

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